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Though the effects of stroke are unpredictable, mood disorders such as depression, anxiety and pseudo-bulbar affect (PBA) are equally common. Researchers are actively investigating if certain kinds of strokes or strokes in certain areas of the brain produce mood disorders. So far, studies suggest that simply having a stroke increases the risk of either anxiety or depression, or having both. Research indicates that PBA is more common in survivors of the brainstem stroke, but it can occur in strokes in other areas. Depression affects between one- and two-thirds of stroke survivors. It’s characterized by feelings of overarching sadness, lack of pleasure in activities that were before enjoyed, or changes in eating and sleeping patterns. On other hands, anxiety occurs when a survivor focuses on worries and concerns. “They go over them again and again in their minds but without necessarily reaching a conclusion. Anxiety affects about 20 per cent of survivors. PBA is characterized by a mismatch between feelings and expression – laughing at a funeral, crying at a joke. PBA hasn’t been investigated as much as depression or anxiety, but it’s not uncommon, impacting 28 to 52 per cent of stroke survivors, according to studies. Mood disorders significantly alter the lives of survivors and their families. Because crying or a lack of emotions characterize the disorders, it’s best to identify them accurately and receive treatment based on a psychological assessment. A mental health professional talks with the survivor to determine their internal state of mind and their behaviour.
- Memory problems
According to a survey, there are more than 600 neurological disorders. Neurological disorders are diseases that affect the brain and the central and autonomic nervous systems. In recognizing the signs and symptoms of neurological problems, it is first important to differentiate the many types of neurological disorders. The World Health Organization reports that various types of neurological disorders affect millions of people around the world, including 24 million that suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and 326 million who experience migraines. If you suspect that you or a loved one may be suffering from one of these issues, you may also be wondering about what causes a neurological disorder. The causes of such dysfunction can be quite diverse. Both the spinal cord and brain are insulated by abundant membranes that can be vulnerable to force and pressure. The peripheral nerves located deep under the skin can also be vulnerable to damage. Neurological disorders can affect a whole neurological pathway or a single neuron. Even a small disturbance to a neuron’s structural pathway can result in dysfunction.
- Alzheimer’ disease (AD)
- Multiple sclerosis
- Parkinson’s disease
- Neuropsychiatric conditions
Cerebrovascular disease is a medical condition that affects the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. The arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients to the brain are usually getting damaged in these disorders. The most common type of cerebrovascular disease is an ischemic stroke or mini-stroke and sometimes a haemorrhagic stroke. High blood pressure (Hypertension) is the most important contributing risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular diseases as it can change the structure of blood vessels and result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition where the blood vessels narrow in the brain, resulting in decreased cerebral perfusion. Narrowed cerebral arteries may lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of vessels, leading to a haemorrhagic stroke. Stroke is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease and stroke share many of the same risk factors such as high LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese. Individuals with coronary heart disease, angina, or who have had a heart attack due to atherosclerosis, have more than twice the risk of stroke than those who haven’t. If you have atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries you are very likely to have atherosclerosis in other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis is often referred to as "hardening of the arteries." The word comes from the Greek words athero (meaning gruel or paste) and sclerosis (hardness). In atrial fibrillation, the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) quiver instead of beating effectively to move blood into the ventricle.
- Cardiovascular epidemiology
- Stroke epidemiology
- Vascular malformation epidemiologic research
- Genetics of ischemic stroke
- Neurovascular genetics
A healthy brain and nervous system control your body functions so you can have full command over your senses, muscles, and intelligence. Despite the amazing capacities of the human brain and nerves, they are vulnerable to damage just like every other part of our bodies. Strokes, concussions, Alzheimer’s and many other brain problems affect about 50 million Americans. The multitude of brain injuries and illnesses strike different people based on the risk factors of their genetics, age and lifestyle. The severity of impairment and the availability of treatment vary widely. Knowledge of brain and nerve health has advanced rapidly in recent decades. Many new treatments and medicines are available to treat various disorders. Still, the best thing for your brain is to keep it physically and mentally active while eating nutritious food and getting plenty of social interaction. Neuromuscular diseases are a wide-ranging group of diseases that affect nerves and muscles. They can arise following an injury, from other diseases such as diabetes, or from inherited or autoimmune diseases. Neuromuscular diseases can cause pain, weakness, numbness, and sometimes more severe symptoms such as difficulty talking, eating, or breathing.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)
- Guillain Barre syndrome
- Muscular dystrophy
- Myasthenia gravis
Rehabilitation is given for a long period of time to improve function so that the stroke survivor can become as independent as possible. This must be accomplished in a way that preserves dignity and motivates the survivor to relearn basic skills that the stroke may have impaired - skills like bathing, eating, dressing and walking. Rehabilitation starts in the hospital as soon as possible following a stroke. The rehab team includes Physiatrist, Neurologist, Rehabilitation Nurse, Physical Therapist, Occupational Therapist and Speech-Language Pathologists. Recovery following a stroke starts as the brain responds to what’s happened. The brain’s functions will be adjusted to account for the death or decrease in the affected area. If a stroke victim receives medical attention within three hours of suffering the stroke they may be a candidate to receive medication to break up clots via an IV-drip. This clot-destroying medicine can significantly reduce negative long-term disabilities in the patient. The rehabilitation process begins after doctors have assessed and treated any critical conditions in the patient, and taken precautionary steps to prevent additional complications. This means rehabilitation could begin during the patient’s first hospital visit, which will increase the likelihood of recovering the damaged body and brain function. The first three months of recovery are when a patient will see the most development, and gains may happen rapidly over time. Some stroke survivors will continue to progress after this period; however, if the brain stem was affected during the stroke recovery could take up to a year or even longer.
- Ischemic stroke
- Haemorrhage stroke
- Stroke prognosis
- Cerebral hypoperfusion
- Intracranial hemorrhage
- Non-invasive brain stimulation
- Atrial Fibrillation
- Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis
- Coronary Artery Disease
Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. The primary tools of basic neurophysiological research include electrophysiological recordings, for example, voltage clamp, patch clamp, extracellular single-unit recording and recording of local field potentials, as well as some of the methods of apoptogenesis, calcium imaging, and molecular biology. Neurophysiology is related to electrophysiology, neuroanatomy, psychology and mathematical neuroscience. Neurodegeneration is the process of progressive damage of structure or function of neurons, with the death of neurons. Many neurodegenerative diseases – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's – occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration and/or death of neuron cells. As research progresses, many similarities appear that relate these diseases to one another on a sub-cellular level. Discovering these resemblances offers hope for therapeutic advances that could ameliorate many diseases simultaneously. There are many parallels between different neurodegenerative disorders including atypical protein assemblies as well as induced cell death. Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuitry ranging from molecular to systemic.
- Demyelinating diseases
- Peripheral and autonomic neuropathy
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
- Huntington’s diseases
- Batten diseases
- Prevention of dementia
Benign and malignant. Benign tumors are usually formed by slow-growing cells that hardly spread. Though they can press on and damage nearby normal tissue, benign tumors are less dangerous than malignant tumors. However, they can be dangerous if they endanger vital brain centres. However, over time, some benign tumors can become malignant. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are formed by cells that typically grow quickly and are capable of invading nearby tissues and spreading to other parts of the body. Their tendencies to attack and spread make these tumors much more dangerous. Malignant tumors of the brain often spread to other parts of the central nervous system. Only relatively few spread to other parts of the body. The cause of most brain cancers is unknown. In general, cancers are due to a combination of inherited genetic factors coupled with some exposure during life, such as exposure to a chemical, a virus or radiation. Of these, the best case has been made for exposure to high doses of radiation, such as those given as part of cancer treatment, and an increased risk of subsequent brain cancer. Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace has also been found to increase the risk of developing brain cancer. Infections may play a role as well: the virus that causes mononucleosis, the Epstein-Barr virus, has been linked to an increased risk of a form of lymphoma that affects the central nervous system, CNS lymphoma, which also is more common among individuals infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Genetics play a particularly important role in a number of brain tumors that are clearly linked to a number of inherited disorders and disorders due to chromosome injury.
- Paediatric neurooncology
- Types of pain in neuro-oncology
- Pathophysiology in neuro-oncology
- Brain Injury rehabilitation
- Neurosurgical methods
- Advanced neurosurgery instruments
The recent neuroscience research proves that Neuroplasticity is the basis for brain working out exercises which revolutionized the brain health and science research. The ability of the Brain to alter at any age is referred to as Neuroplasticity or Brain Plasticity. There are about 600 Neurological disorders and approximately 50 million Americans are being affected each year. The main risk factors for Neurological disorders are genetic manipulation, age, lifestyle and other eco-friendly agents. Abnormalities in structural and biochemical functions cause various symptoms. Some of them are paralysis, seizures, confusion, muscle weakness and altered levels of consciousness. One of the fundamental principles underlying neuroplasticity is based on the idea that individual synaptic contacts are constantly being removed or recreated, largely dependent upon the activity of the neurons that bear them. The activity-dependence of synaptic plasticity is captured in the aphorism which is often used to summarize Hebbian theory: "neurons that fire together, wire together"/"neurons that fire out of sync, fail to link". If two nearby neurons often produce an impulse in close temporal proximity, their functional properties may converge. Conversely, neurons that are not regularly activated simultaneously may be less likely to functionally converge.
- Addiction psychiatry
- Holistic psychiatry
- Comprehensive psychiatry
- Psychiatric treatment
- Clinical neurophysiology
Neuroprotection suggests to the relative storing of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an on-going insult (a neurodegenerative insult), the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a decreasing in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation. It is a widely explored treatment option for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury and acute management of neurotoxin consumption (i.e. methamphetamine overdoses). Neuroprotection aims to prevent or slow disease progression and secondary injuries by halting or at least slowing the loss of neurons. In spite of contrasts in indications or wounds related to CNS clutters, numerous of the instruments behind neurodegeneration are the same. Common instruments incorporate expanded levels in the oxidative stretch, mitochondrial brokenness, excitotoxicity, provocative changes, press amassing, and protein aggregation. Of these instruments, neuroprotective medications regularly target oxidative stretch and excitotoxicity—both of which are greatly related with CNS disarranges. Not as it was can oxidative stretch and excitotoxicity trigger neuron cell passing but when combined they have synergistic impacts that cause indeed more debasement than on their own. In this way restricting excitotoxicity and oxidative push may be an exceptionally vital perspective of neuroprotection. Common neuroprotective medications are glutamate opponents and cancer prevention agents, which point to constrain excitotoxicity and oxidative.
- Epileptic seizure
- Partial and generalized seizure
- Progressive myoclonic epilepsies
- Cerebral trauma and tumour
- Cerebrovascular and autoimmune diseases
- Disorders of chromosome function
- Differential diagnosis
Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to better understand the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis and answer to injuries. A long-term aim of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear aetiology. In doing so, neuroimmunology contributes to the development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Many kinds of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning of the two systems in health and disease, malfunction of either and or both systems that lead to disorders and the physical, chemical, and ecological stressors that affect the two systems on a daily basis. Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. It is a type of chemical messenger which transmits signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular connection, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by neurotransmitter receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and abundant precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than 200 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified.
- Neurodevelopmental disorders
- Neuroimmunological disorders
- Myasthenia gravis
- Acute inflammatory polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barre syndrome)
- Neurotransmitter receptors
- Peptides and purines
- Excitatory and inhibitory ways
The major reason of death in children in the USA is due to stroke and the most pediatric stroke survivors will be suffering from neurological or cognitive impairments. Because of the plasticity of the brains of children, they recover earlier than adults. A stroke survivor may be diagnosed with Epilepsy. Based on the cause of the stroke, the treatments will be decided by the physicians. Constraint therapy is an old therapy, but it is now widely used in pediatric stroke rehabilitation. If the stroke is caused by the blockage, then blood thinning medications will be given. If a stroke occurs due to Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), then an immediate blood transfusion will be performed. A physiotherapist can help with movement problems such as weakness or paralysis, spasticity or muscle spasms. The therapist will assess and design a program to increase muscle strength (which can reduce the risk of spasticity) and movement. It is estimated that about 6 million deaths are due to cerebrovascular disorders. It is the second leading cause of death in the world and 6th most common cause of disability.
- Life after stroke
- Cognitive behavioural therapy
- Mobility training
- Non-invasive brain stimulation
- Therapy for communication disorders
- Psychological evaluation and treatment
Neuropsychiatry preceded the current disciplines of psychiatry and neurology, which had common training; however, psychiatry and neurology have subsequently split apart and are typically practised separately. Neuropsychiatry is thoroughly associated with the fields of behavioural neurology. Neuropsychiatry is the interface of Psychiatry and Neurology that deals with mental disorders, which in most cases can be shown to have their origin from an identifiable brain malfunction. Neuropsychiatry focuses to understand the link between the mind, body and its behaviour. Training in both neurological and psychiatric aspects of illness places Neuropsychiatry in a unique place to deliver this care. An effective evaluation of the clinical course of diseases requires the application of very precise diagnostic and assessment approaches as early as possible. By achieving these strategies, offers new chances for biomarker identification and/or discovery in complex diseases and may provide pathological pathways understanding for diseases beyond traditional methodologies.
- Addiction psychiatry
- Holistic psychiatry
- Comprehensive psychiatry
- Psychiatric treatment
- Clinical neurophysiology
Nurses play an important role in all phases of care of the stroke patient. Some of the nurse caring plans are Ineffective Cerebral Tissue Perfusion, Impaired Physical Mobility, Impaired Verbal Communication, Disturbed Sensory Perception, Ineffective Coping, Self-Care Deficit, and Risk for Reduced Swallowing. Nurses may work as an emergency medical specialist (EMT) and paramedics, radio providers of online medical control to emergency medical services (EMS) personnel from base stations, and educators who teach EMS personnel about stroke and the care of stroke patients. Nurse Interventions are monitoring major signs in patients such as monitoring blood pressure, comparing BP reading in arms, heart rate, rhythm, and murmurs. There also monitor Respirations, noting patterns and rhythm, Cheyne-Strokes respiration.
- Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience
- Computational neuroscience
- Developmental neuroscience
- Cognitive neuropsychology
- Depersonalization disorder